Referencing Guide (APA)

A guide to help you with referencing using the APA style

This guide is designed to help you understand how to quote or reference in your academic work and how to write a reference list/bibliography. 

All the information in this guide is taken from the study management pages on RNCM Moodle, which also have further details and examples. A guide to referencing can be found here 

Further guidelines can be found on the APA website at and at the Purdue University “Online Writing Lab”


References are a list of resources which you have referred to in the text. For each source that you cite, quote or otherwise allude to, you need to use an in-text referencing system. This should be included in the word count of your essay.

In-Text Citations

When citing a source in the body of your essay, you will need to include the author, date and page number of the source, such as (Jones, 1998, p. 36). A complete reference of the source should be included in your reference list (bibliography) at the end of the essay.

If you are referring to an idea from a source but not directly quoting it, it is still preferable to include the page number although not essential.


APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Referring to the author in your text

You need only to include the date and page number.

According to Jones (1998), “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p. 199).

Citing a source within a source

Name the original source in your sentence. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.

Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).

An electronic source

Cite the same as any other document.

Kenneth (2000) explained...

Electronic sources without page numbers

Give information to help the reader locate your citation, such as the paragraph number.

According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).

Authors with the same surname

Include the first initials with the surnames.

(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)

More than one source by the same author in your bibliography

Use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list / bibliography.

Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that...

Reference List/Bibliography

A Reference List should be alphabetically organised and may include sections, such as Media Cited for recordings, and Music Sources for scores. Additional texts you have read but not referred to in the text, should be included at the end of your Reference list under the separate title Additional Sources Accessed.



Composer, Initial(s), & Editor, initial(s) (Editor). (Year of publication) Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.


Chabrier, E. (Composer), & Delage, R. (Editor). (1995) Mélodies. Heugel.


Surname, initial(s). (year of publication). Title and Subtitle. Publisher.


Cook, N. (1990). Music, imagination, and culture. Oxford University Press.

N.B. take book titles from the title-page, not the front cover or dust jacket.

N.B. be sure to indicate if there is a primary editor rather than just a single author (as well as if the text has been translated from its original language)

N.B. also indicate if it is a second (or later) edition

Chapter within a book

Surname, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Chapter. In initial(s). Editor surname (Ed.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Publisher.


Franklin, P. (2004) Sibelius in Britain. D. M. Grimley (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Sibelius (pp.182-95). Cambridge University Press.


Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, vol no(issue no), pages.


Solie, R.A. (1980). The Living Work: Organicism and Musical Analysis. Nineteenth-Century Music, 4(2), 147-56.

Oxford Music Online

Surname, Initial(s) (Year of online publication) Title of individual article. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press.


Korhonen, K & Risto, N. (2001) Saariaho, Kaija. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press.


Author. (date accessed). Title [medium of resource]. Retrieved from URL


Grinsted, P. (2001, November 12).

Bach scores in Kyiv: the long-lost music archive of the Berlin Sing-Akademie surfaces in Ukraine [Website] ;

Saunders, R & Arditti Quartet. (2014, July 11) Rebecca Saunders – Fletch [Video file]. Retrieved from

Electronic journals

Citations of articles should include the URL as found at the beginning of the article and the paragraph number


Glixon, J. (1995). Far il buon concerto: music at the Venetian Scuole Piccole in the seventeenth century. Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music. Retrieved from , par. 2.3.

Sound recordings

For the recording   

Composer, initial(s). [Date of copyright]. Title of track [Recorded by artist if different from composer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording].  Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date).


Mahler, G. [2000]. [Rattle, S.]. Symphony No.10 [Compact disc]. EMI.


Schubert, F. [1997]. Heidenröslein [R.Fleming & C.Eschenbach]. On Songs, for voice and piano [Compact Disc]. Decca.

For associated literature


Matthews, C. (2000). [Liner notes]. On Symphony No.10 [Compact disc]. EMI


Last modified: Wednesday, 8 September 2021, 4:04 PM